Thematic Areas

Internal Accountability

IA 1 - Participation and inclusion

IA 1 - Participation and inclusion

It is important that NGOs understand and internalise the rights, interests and viewpoints of those with whom and for whom they work. They should ensure that decision-making processes, strategic directions and lessons learnt are informed by the views of their primary stakeholders. As all the stakeholders are not equal in power, they should also endeavour to to address power inequalities in consultation and decision-making mechanisms. 

Participatory tools to support participation and inclusion include:

  • Social map – to identify the relative location of households, the distribution of different people, and the social structure, groups and organisations in an area.
  • Chapatti diagramto map actors and institutions and analyse their relative power and influence.



Here you can download some useful resources.

Tools in this toolbox

Chapatti diagram

To explore relationships between things – particularly the relative importance, influence or power of people, organisations or gr…

Social audit

To collect and present evidence about a programme or service.                               The Social Audit process uses partici…

Social map

This is a bird’s eye view of a village that shows the demographic details and the social infrastructure available for the people …